Usability Mistakes – Assumptions and Solutions!

Too Many clicks!

What makes any software usable be it a healthcare, Retail, or say Airlines industry?

The message that product gurus are receiving from users is clear – many of today’s solutions are perceived as non-intuitive, with the potential to confuse workflow and slow down their practice. Organizations that focus on product usability are gaining competitive advantage by showcasing success stories of innovative design, ease of adoption, and long-term satisfaction.

Having worked on few products; I have come across quite a few Assumptions. We in this 4 part series will talk through these assumptions and try and see if we can have a solution around these assumptions!

Assumption 1: All info at single screen

Majority of the times it is assumed that information presented by a software product should be
visible on a single screen!

The question that comes with this assumption is how come in the world the huge amount of data can be presented into one screen without making it cluttered?

This is a classic user interface problem. Typically, this type of observation stems from prior experiences in
which the user was forced to hunt for information.

Usability Mistakes

Usability Mistakes

Users become frustrated when they can’t find the information they are looking for. And this results in the assumption that the solution to their problem is to have all of the information available “up front” so that they don’t have to search for it.

But this approach is not a correct one! It has its own flaws…a single UI screen simply just can’t have enough space to house all information.Even if you somehow are able to adjust the data in one screen, this would end up making the scree or page cluttered!

What I feel we never understand what exactly user is looking for; To me they are really asking for the ability to obtain the information they are looking for in a

quick, non-stressful fashion

You can only help them do this if you understand the common tasks performed by your users and the terminology that they use in their work day.

  • Reserve dashboards for primary tasks only

If you design the dashboards without formal user research and usability testing, you would see cluttered dashboards / main screens on almost every product.
Once you understand the users’ workflow, you would discover that users have a distinct set of primary and secondary tasks. They may look for some information quite a few times per day, while they may only want to access other information once a day or once a week.

The key is to ensure that the information can be found and accessed in a logical fashion and displayed at the right time.

Research has shown that if the path to the desired information is clear and obvious, a user will not mind navigating two or three pages “deep” as long as they know that they are on the right track.

It is therefore important to design the interface in a way that

  • reduces the time for a user to think about where to go
  • moves them through the interface in a logical fashion.

If users become confused about where to look for information or the time it takes to return to that information, they will become frustrated and their confidence in the solution will be shaken.

A desired page might be just one or two clicks away, but if users do not see a logical path to that information, they often assume that it is not available – or simply give up before finding it.

We will talk about few more mistakes that a user would do in our upcoming posts! Till then ‘Don’t let your users think!’


Enterprise Usability – Simple tasks must be simple, and complex ones must be possible

“Some 70% of failed CRM projects claim lack of user adoption as a primary contributor. Even successful projects cite low user adoption as a barrier to timely project completion” – As per research from Forrester.

So why do intelligent, experienced, educated designers and product managers produce software that frustrates their user base?

Let’s know this for once and all;  For Enterprise users the focus is shifting from ‘In the office’ to ‘anywhere, and anytime’. With this change in trend the enterprise vendors must adapt to the user experience which can be adopted by the users.

Primary reasons for Enterprise software to be ‘So-Hard’ to use should fall under following;

1. Enterprise buyers in most of the cases will never be the Users.

2. The Constraint faced due to Architecture

3. There is always a risk of ‘Change’ being ‘Challenged’

4. No specific target groups of users – Solution being generic

Let’s take them one by one;

In order to understand #1, think it this way, In majority of the ERP solutions, people who buy the product are not the end users. This ‘Divorces’ users from any decision making capability. Majority of the time the senior management will put features, cost, and most importantly the ‘Trust and Relation’ on the vendor at the top.

There’s been no cost justification for simplifying the solution.

The customers who have been using a version 3.0 of a product will upgrade from 4.5 to 5.0 just because they don’t want to start again with another application, and the learning curve, customization, and deployment that comes with it.

Majority of the time usability problems are addressed as Complaints or as an expensive training.

Management needs to understand ‘Total Cost of Ownership’ doesn’t end at install.

Let’s talk about #2

Majority of the enterprise solutions look like the solution from 90s. And that is fine, because that is what they were supposed to be. They were designed by Software Developers and not by UI designers. The entire focus was on to utilize Computation power and not the user’s need! Let’s make it clear, it’s not the job of a developer to think about the psychology of the users on the other side of mouse!

The development team did their job, and did it well enough to stand the test of time. What it can’t do however is to test the prowess of usability.

I am not a developer, but what I understand of enterprise product’s code is; their GUI is deeply embedded in the product with workflows being hard coded. Hence it becomes tough to change or re-write the code!

One major contributor to lose of usability is; Acquisition. You end up merging not only the culture but also the architecture of several different modules. You think that this makes the offering more robust and keeps the acquired users happy. But in reality combining different architectures and technologies might result in a richer product, but it leaves the underlying code a goopy mess’, which makes it tough to comply with usability standards.

We will talk about other 2 elements and further solution in this regard in up coming posts. Thanks for reading / visiting.

Before you buy software, make sure it believes in the same things you do. Whether you realize it or not, software comes with a set of beliefs built in.Before you choose software, make sure it shares yours. – PeopleSoft Advertisement

Installation isn’t the same as adoption!

Consumer v/s Enterprise; these are the two major paradigm in today’s mobile world. You call it B2C or Consumer, or B2B aka Enterprise; the lines are merging when you talk of user experience.

If you think of it, the Consumer is pretty straightforward – We build a product for the end user and, if they like it, they’ll go ahead and pay for it. Having the excellent UX (User Experience) is quickly becoming a fundamental ‘Feature’ and no more is a luxury. The competition is fierce and the treacherous one-click adage puts competitors just one click away.

Now think of enterprise world; the user and the purchaser here are different people with different needs. And this is what requires a product manager to have a different product management approach. In the early days of having a top-down adoption of software development meant that the end user experience didn’t really matter – as long as whoever was paying for it was happy and hit their goals. But then happened – ‘the consumerisation of the enterprise’.

Due to the revolution in user experience in consumer apps, end users simply gave up on crusty old systems internally and demanded better tools. And, if they don’t get them, they simply get around their IT department and use whatever they can to make their work more efficient. And this is what made companies realize that installation isn’t the same as adoption and that to truly benefit from new products they have to be used.

But the cliche’ is: Many ‘consumer’ products are driven by a sense of desire, a want, and frequent ‘need’ doesn’t even enter the picture. Enterprise products flip that formula on its ear. If it isn’t needed, justification is hard to get, unless there’s an executive champion with enough clout to drive ‘want’ over need.

More to follow on this in my next post…

Simplifying Website Forms – Eye tracking research and web design

Forms can be found on almost every website; from contact or feedback forms in small websites to bank details in commerce websites, from registration to communication, from banking to searching.

Relevant research

In his book ‘Web Form Design‘, Luke Wroblewski has recommended a number of best practices for form design. Based on his recommendations, Matteo Penzo and his colleagues have carried out an ad-hoc eye tracking test measuring saccadic activity and saccades times for different label placements, formatting and types of form content (common input fields). They designed and built four separate forms specifically for the test where each of them consists of four input fields.

How this research differs

  1. Unlike Penzo’s studies which focused on efficiency (movement of eyes between fixation points and how long it takes to travel from one point to another), here we are interested in ease in completing a form and the users’ satisfaction.
    We sought to find out how to design a form that users enjoy using and is easy to fill in without unnecessary distraction – the quality of a form design.
  2. Instead of designing new forms for the research, we used four existing, and familiar registration forms –Yahoo! Mail, Googlemail, Hotmail and eBay. We chose these forms as we wanted to reflect real-world conditions as much as possible and cover a wide range of designs.
  3. The four registration forms we chose have a good combination of designs. For instance, each represents different layout designs, different ways of grouping fields and different ways of indicating mandatory or optional fields (as shown in Table 1).

Table 1: List of forms selected for the research

Google Mail sign up form

Google Mail sign up formGoogle Mail sign up form

  • Left-aligned horizontal labels
  • No grouping applied
  • No indicators (all fields required)

Hotmail sign up form

Hotmail sign up formHotmail sign up form

  • Right-aligned horizontal labels
  • Grouping, separated by lines and bold headers
  • Asterisks at the front of labels

Yahoo mail sign up form

Yahoo! Mail sign up formYahoo! Mail sign up form

  • Right-aligned horizontal labels
  • Grouping, separated by lines and numbered, coloured headers
  • No asterisks, uses italicized text for optional field

eBay sign up form

eBay sign up formeBay sign up form

  • Vertical labels
  • Grouping, separated by shaded headers
  • Asterisks at the end of labels

Statistical relevance

It is worth mentioning that the main objective of the research was to look for trends in best practice when designing forms.
It might not be statistically valid. However, we have tested with target users which are familiar with online forms, have used real world existing web forms, provided users with a comfortable testing environment and encouraged them to use the form in the way they would do at home. The findings of this study are going to be the basis for further work.

How this is done?

This reseacrh is carried out with eight participants (six female and two male) . The participants’ average age was 27, ranging from 22 to 33. All participants had online shopping experience or use webmail accounts in their daily life, where they are familiar with web forms.

Two forms were randomly chosen for each participant, and the order of the forms was counterbalanced over the group of participants. The participants were requested to fill in the forms, assuming they were registering for the webmail service at home.

In this research, we not only listened to the participants’ comments about filling forms, we also observed their actions and analysed their eye activities. By combining all the data, we were able to provide insights into the behaviour of users when filling in forms, the optimum design for forms and what should be considered when creating forms.

What we found:

Guideline 1 – Vertical, not horizontal

Users complete web forms from top to bottom. Therefore forms with a simple vertical layout are always better than multi-column layouts.

All the forms tested in this study had a vertical layout with different label alignments. We found that vertical aligned labels are preferable (e.g. eBay) as compared to right/left aligned labels. Participants found that it is easier to scan down a column, rather than scan from left to right.

“It’s easier to look down as my eyes will look down to find the next box”.

Quick tips:
Use a simple vertical layout and vertical aligned labels where possible.

Guideline 2 – Left-aligned labels are clearer (anecdotally)

Sometimes it is not possible to have vertical aligned labels due to some design restrictions (like having a minimal amount of vertical space), horizontal aligned labels are the alternatives.

Both Yahoo and Hotmail have right-aligned labels, whilst Google Mail’s labels are left aligned. The eye-tracking study we carried out did not produce a conclusive answer as to whether left or right aligned labels are preferable by participants. However, labels with left aligned labels are anecdotally clearer.

Although they are claimed to have the slowest completion rates because it requires more eye fixations and longer eye movements, it is not necessarily a bad thing depending on the objective of the form. Left-aligned labels have a tidier, clear layout and they enable users to quickly scan each label increasing the readability of the labels.

In their test, Penzo concluded that bold labels should be avoided if possible, as they are more difficult to read. However, our findings show a contradictory result. It conforms to Luke’s recommendations where bold fonts can emphasis the labels from the foreground of the layout. Our participants found forms with bold labels easier to fill in.

“Googlemail is easier to read because it’s bold”

Quick tip:
If vertical aligned labels are not possible, use bold left-aligned labels.

Guidelines 3 – When breaking the ‘one column’ rule

There are some exception cases where the ‘single column’ rule can be broken. Users expect to see names (first and last name), dates (year, month and day) and time (hour and minute) written on a single line. Nonetheless, when putting more than one field on a line, they should be designed carefully.

Yahoo and eBay have both first and last names on the same line. Many participants commented that they felt awkward having to skip from left to right to fill in both fields for eBay, and then continue filling in the rest of the form (in vertical direction).

However, participants did not make the same comment about Yahoo. As shown in Figure 1, eBay has more eye fixations and longer viewing duration than Yahoo on the last name field. We suggest this might be due to two reasons:

1. The gap between both fields is smaller on Yahoo’s page; and

2. Most importantly, both fields share the same label (same for birthday: day, month and year in Yahoo). Psychologically, participants treated both fields as a single question and did not feel that they were entering two pieces of information.

eBay and Yahoo sign-up form - gaze-plotFigure 1 :Gaze fixation diagrams (between 30 – 40 seconds) showing eBay has longer gaze fixation duration than Yahoo’s last name field

Another interesting design point, Yahoo cleverly places the secondary labels inside the text boxes: First Name and Surname, with light gray fonts which disappear once users start typing in the boxes (Figure 2).
We like this approach as there is no extra eye movement required and it is impossible for users to miss reading the labels. One thing to bear in mind when using this kind of design is to make sure the coding is done carefully to support accessibility.

Quick tips: When more than one field is placed on a line, ensure that they are designed to look like a single piece of information (e.g. sharing a single label, or putting them closer to each other).

Yahoo name formFigure 2: Yahoo places its secondary labels inside the text boxes which disappear when users start typing

Guideline 4 – Use coloured or shaded grouping headers ONLY if they are important

One of our golden rules is to break a form into manageable chunks, putting relevant fields together to make it ‘feel’ shorter.

In the tests, Googlemail was the only site which did not break the form into logical content groups, whilst the other three forms group related fields and provide a header for each group.

From the eye-tracking study, we found that the participants did not pay much attention to the headers (see Hotmail heat map gaze opacity in Figure 3 which shows what participants saw and did not see on the page). Shaded headings (see eBay’s heat map gaze opacity in Figure 4) or coloured heading fonts are more likely to catch users attention.

“It [shading] is much clearer”, “[Yahoo] Well chunked, good use of purple for the headings, fields nicely grouped, instantly see the groupings”.

Hotmail heat map opacityFigure 3: Heat map gaze opacity diagram for Hotmail showing participants did not pay attention to the grouping headers.

eBay gaze plot opacityFigure 4: Heat map gaze opacity diagram for eBay showing participants did pay attention to the grouping headers

Grouping related fields into appropriate chunks is definitely useful. The question is: do users always have to read the grouping headers? It might depend on the purpose of the headers and how important they are in the form. Our suggestion is that if you want users to see the headers, use shaded headings or coloured, emboldened heading fonts. If they are not important, don’t bother to do so to avoid distracting users from filling in the form.

Quick tips:
Emphasize the headers (coloured or shaded) if you want users to read them.

Guidelines 5 – Don’t use asterisks, make clear optional fields

There are always arguments whether asterisks should be used to indicate mandatory fields, or to use the word ‘optional’ for the opposite. Both eBay and Hotmail use asterisks for required fields, whilst Googlemail does not have any indication, which presumably means that all fields are required. Yahoo is unique in using italicized text to indicate optional fields, e.g. ‘alternative e-mail’.

None of the participants were aware of Yahoo’s optional field as it’s italicized text does not stand out from other labels. Data also shows none of our participants paid attention to asterisks and its indication on top of the page (see Figure 5, showing there is no fixation at all). Participants tended to fill in all the fields. Some of them mentioned that they would only pay more attention to the asterisks or optional symbols when they are unwilling to provide specific information or they thought a question is unnecessary.

“I won’t think of it (asterisks or optional) unless I thought the question is unnecessary”

Hotmail mandatory form fields - heatmapFigure 5: Heat map for Hotmail showing participants how did not pay any attention to the asterisks indication (for required fields)

People go on to a form expecting to fill in everything. If possible, only ask users for information that is absolutely required. If for marketing purpose or for some other reasons where optional fields are needed, we suggest to mark optional fields clearly instead of indicating the mandatory fields.

From our previous experience in observing hundreds of user tests, we found that not all participants know what asterisks ‘*’ mean. Therefore, we recommend placing the word ‘optional’ inside the text boxes in grayed fonts, as shown in Figure 6. In this case, it is not possible for users to miss it and there is no extra eye movement needed to read it. We are yet to test this design with users.

Quick tips: Only request for required information. If optional fields are needed, make them clear instead of using asterisks for mandatory fields.

Optional form fieldsFigure 6: Placing the term ‘optional’ in the text boxes to indicate optional fields

Guideline 6 – Use single field for numbers or postcode

During user testing we have carried out over the past few years, we’ve seen that participants are easily confused and uncertain how to fill in fields involving numbers, such as postcodes and phone numbers.

eBay has two fields for phone number, including an international code. Although there is an example shown below the field, it is not clear how a mobile phone number should be entered. As shown in the heat map for eBay in Figure 7, the red spot or ‘hotspot” indicates users looked longest at the phone number field.

“How do you put in a mobile number?”

“Not particularly friendly”

eBay telephone number heatmapFigure 7: Heat map for eBay showing participants looked longest at the phone number fields

There are a few ways to avoid this. One of our golden rules – simple is better. A single field is often more effective than two or more fields. It is also important to have good system validation such as using string analysis to determine whether the users have entered a valid input. Users often are not sure if they should include a space in a postcode. A good design should be able to accept both conditions, with or without a space. If not, a simple, clear error message should be presented.

Phone numbers can be a tricky one. International codes can be written as ’00′ or ‘+’. Clear indication of which format is accepted should be shown. In addition, individuals remember their phone numbers in a specific way. For example, for a UK mobile phone number, 07812345678, one can remember in the format of 3-4-4 (            078 1234 5678      ) or 5-3-3(            07812 345 678      ). Allowing any form of input would be the best.
Quick tips: Use single field for numbers or postcodes, allow input in various forms. If not, use a good system validation and provide clear error messages if invalid input is entered

Guideline 7 – Avoid multiple tasks. If needed, ensure the important message stands out enough

When users are filling in a form, they often want to focus on the task, get it done quickly and move on to their primary task – making a purchase or registering for a service. Placing any additional unimportant information which requires users to read, may slow them completing the form and therefore should be avoided.

However, if there is an important message that needs to be conveyed to users, it should be highlighted and stand out to ensure users read it and don’t miss it.

As shown in Figure 8a, the participants hardly looked at the information section on top of the Hotmail page. They skipped the section completely and went straight to the form. However, on the eBay page, participants read not only the message above the form, but also the message box at the right column (see Figure 8b). Both of these messages caught the participants’ attention because they were highlighted in a box and were placed within or parallel with the forms.

Quick tips: Let users focus on their task and avoid distractions. If a message is an important one and it needs to be read by users, make sure it stands out enough to catch users’ attention.

eBay and Hotmail heatmaps with messagesFigure 8:(a) Heat maps for Hotmail and (b) eBay showing participants were more likely to read messages which were highlighted and placed within or parallel with the forms

Guideline 8 – Be wary about introducing real time feedback

Yahoo provides instant feedback each time users fill in a field by showing a tick at the end of the field. Each tick disappears after a few seconds (as shown in Figure 9). The majority of the participants commented they did pay attention to them. However there were mixed opinions from the participants on the animated ticks. Some of them gave positive comments, whilst others thought they were distracting.

“The tick is useful. It saves the hassle of having to recheck what I’ve put in”

Real time feedback is useful to present information that needs to be conveyed urgently and requires users’ instant attention.

Quick tips: Use real time feedback carefully and in an appropriate manner

Form field error handlingFigure 9: Snapshot of Yahoo, providing a real time feedback (tick or error messages) at the end of the field

Guideline 9 – Place tips at the side (if possible) of the relevant fields

eBay and Googlemail have tips below each field, whilst Yahoo has real time animated tips at the end of fields. Hotmail, on the other hand, has the descriptions below and at the side (animated).

Overall, participants preferred descriptions that appeared at the end of the fields rather than below

“I prefer it that they are at the end, it makes me read them”

Descriptions underneath fields can easily clutter the page especially if they are all black fonts, for example, as in Googlemail.

“Looks like there is a huge chunk of writing, very messy”

Yahoo and Hotmail both have descriptions at the end of the fields. However it is interesting to find that participants read the descriptions on Hotmail page more often than Yahoo (comparison between heat maps for Yahoo and Hotmail in Figure 10). Hotmail has a ‘tidier’ layout where all the fields are in the same size and are aligned, both vertically and horizontally. On the other hand, Yahoo has quite a big mix of text boxes and drop down boxes with different sizes, and they are not aligned. Therefore when the description appears at the end of a field, users can easily ignore or miss it.

Hotmail real time tipsFigure 10: Heat maps showing participants paid more attention to Hotmail’s real time tips (at the end of each field) than Yahoo’s real time tips

In addition, when providing tips for each field, it is vital to ensure that they are placed with the correct field. For example, eBay provides tips on how to choose a password (e.g. require six or more characters or numbers). However, it is placed below the ‘re-enter your password’ text box. Instead, it should be shown to the users before they first enter their password, along with the ‘Create your password’ field (see Figure 11).

Quick tips: If possible, place tips at the side of the relevant fields and ensure the fields are well aligned

eBay password tipsFigure 11: eBay’s tips on password should be placed below the ‘Create your password’ field instead of the ‘Re-enter your password’ field

Guideline 10 – Tell users how many steps are left if it’s a multi-page form

We suggest that it is better to allow scrolling than building a lot of short pages of forms. Although all the forms we tested in the eye-tracking study had all the fields on one page, participants made a specific comment that they would like to be informed how many steps left and what lies ahead when they are dealing with a multi-page form.
Quick tips: Provide users with a progress indicator showing them what they would require to do in order to complete a registration or payment process

Other guidelines

We have four other golden rules which are not mentioned above:

  • Always remind users what they want first, then ask who they are in order to build trust (e.g. ‘Brochure request (please complete below sections’)
  • Use cookies to remember users’ details (not passwords) so that they do not have to keep filling in the same information again and again
  • Never use a complex or overly legal statement to confuse users, for example when asking users to agree to receive monthly newsletter. Users do not like companies who try to trick or confuse them into giving their details


Users do not like to be visually distracted when filling in forms. They often want to get it done as quickly as possible. Therefore it is vital to design a clear and tidy form. Users do not mind filling in a rather long form with easy to understand and neat design than a short, visually cluttered and complicated form.

Why iPhone apps outsell Android apps

A recent internal study carried out by Distimo found that the top 200 highest grossing apps in the US generate over three times more revenue in the Apple App Store for iPhone (excluding iPad) than they do in the Google Android Market. And, crucially, this is a trend exaggerated in most other countries outside of the US.

The most recent figures from ComScore revealed that Android phones now account for 44.8 percent market share, compared to 27.4 percent for iPhone, so the fact that the revenue generated by iPhone apps is so much larger than it is for Android is surprising. They have tried to identify some of the reasons why the revenue of Android apps lags behind that of iPhone apps.

App discoverability
One reason lies in app discoverability. It should be easy for smartphone users to find the most relevant content for their phone with just a few clicks, and the most important and easy way for many smartphone customers to find applications is by means of the top overall applications in the app store associated with their mobile device. So, how are the iPhone and Android phones different in this respect? The difference lies in the content refresh rate of the top apps. As per a research done by Distimo, they had a look at the top 100 free and the top 100 paid applications in the US every day during September 2011, as research has shown these applications to be the most relevant when looking at app discoverability. They found that 631 distinct applications had a top 100 free or paid ranking in the Apple App Store for iPhone in September. By contrast, they found that only 313 distinct applications had a top 100 free or paid ranking in the Google Android Market in September. This implies that while the top 100 applications refresh quite fast in the Apple App Store for iPhone, the top apps in Android Market have remained nearly the same for the entire month. This makes it much less compelling for Android users to browse through the top Android Market applications on a regular basis to find new applications and spend their money buying apps.

Content volumes
Another important reason for the lower amount of revenue in the Google Android Market is the available content in its store. There is always a debate between fans and supporters of iPhone and Android phones about which store has the best available content. It is hard to measure quality in an objective way, but they tried to find a way to assess the quality of the apps nevertheless. Researchers analysed the top 100 most downloaded free and paid applications in the US during September in both the Apple App Store for iPhone and the Google Android Market to accomplish this. They looked at whether the top applications on the iPhone were also available for download in the Android Market, and 31% of the top applications on the iPhone were also available in Android Market. However, when looking at the top applications in the Google Android Market, 41% of the top applications were also available in the Apple App Store for iPhone. More top Android content is available in the Apple App Store than vice versa, which leads us to conclude that iPhone is the leader for new unique top content and Android is the follower. This is yet another reason that users may find it more interesting to browse through apps in the Apple App Store for iPhone than in the Google Android Market.

Ease of payment
An important reason why iPhone developers are able to sell more apps than Android developers is the cumbersome payment system associated with the Google Android Market. It is virtually impossible to get an Apple ID without having to enter any payment credentials in the Apple App Store – even when downloading only free apps. This makes buying paid applications later on much easier and accessible in the Apple App Store. Reversely, the Google Android Market makes it easy to download free applications without having to enter any payment options. Without these payment credentials filled in, it is much easier to download a free app the next time a user visits the Android Market than it is to download a paid app. There are rumours that PayPal will be a method of payment for apps in the Android Market in the future. This would make it much easier for many more people to download paid apps, since many people around the world already have a PayPal account.

Content is still king
There are several reasons why the Google Android Market has fewer sales than the Apple App Store for iPhone, but the most important reason is the content itself. Right now, the Google Android Market is the follower and the Apple App Store for iPhone is the content leader. The App Store for iPhone appears to be the most interesting store for users to browse content, but whether this will change in the future largely depends on the monetisation options Google will offer to make developers come on board the Android platform. The available payment methods and ease of payment appear to be important barriers to successful monetisation for developers in this respect, which means that content in the Apple App Store reigns supreme for now.